Physical situation of the country
Formal name: Islamic State of Afghanistan (Dowlat-e-Eslami-ye Afghanestan)
Short name: Afghanistan
Term for Citizens: Afghan
Date of Independence: August 19, 1919 (from UK control)
Area: 652,000 square kilometers
Time: GMT +4.5
Topography: Afghanistan has mountainous terrain. The Northern part of the country is separated from rest of the country by huge ranges. Afghanistan can mainly be divided into 03 different geographic regions known as; The Central Highlands, The Northern Plains, and the Southwest Plateau. The altitude, climate, and soil conditions in Afghanistan have great variations everywhere in the country. South is very green and warm climate, whereas central parts are dry and cold in winter, short summer due to high attitude.
Climate: Its varies from arid to semi arid; cold winters and hot summers
Population: 31 million (2013 est.), which is growing annually 3.48% including the return of migrants to Afghanistan from neighboring countries
GDP - PER CAPITA : purchasing power parity - US$ 800.00
Language: There are about 45 languages spoken in Afghanistan but the 02 main languages are Pashtu 35% and Dari 50% followed by Turkic languages 11% and various other languages. Afghanistan is basically a country with bilingualism. Dari and Pashtu are also the National / official languages.
Religion: Muslims are about 99% (84% Sunni & 15% Shia), Rest of the religions are about 1% including Sikhs & Hindus.
Ethnic groups: Pashtun 38%, Tajik 25%, Hazara 19%, Minor Ethnic groups 12% & Uzbeks 6%.
Education: Compulsory 7 years education.
Literacy: Literacy rate is 31.5%, which includes male 47.2% and female 15%
Economy: Afghanistan is an extremely poor country highly dependent on farming and livestock raising. The Economy of Afghanistan can be divided into 03 sectors;
Agriculture 53%, Industry 28.5% and Services 18.5%. The main agriculture products are wheat, fruits, nuts, wool, mutton & Karakul pelts. The industrial sector includes textiles, soap, furniture, shoes, fertilizer, cement, hand-woven carpets, natural gas, oil & copper. Electricity production is about 420 million Kwh and 64.2% of the total production is hydro generated.
Electicity: 220 Volts AC; 50Hz
Ecology: Soil degradation, overgrazing, deforestation and desertification.
Culture: Land of ancient and rich culture with lots of historical monuments, traditional handicrafts and enormous variety of foods.
Major cities: Kabul, Kandahar, Ghazni, Jalalabad, Mazar-e-Sharif & Herat